?-Amylase has been in increasing demand in industries due to its hydrolytic nature. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is a cost effective method for increasing the enzyme production. In the present study, amylase from Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 1483 was produced in large quantity by solid state fermentation using paddy straw as substrate. Response surface methodology is a useful tool for optimizing many parameters at a time and is used for increasing the amylase production. 8523 IUg-1 of enzyme activity was obtained under optimized conditions which lead to 35 fold increase in the yield of amylase from unoptimized condition.
Anonymous. (2010) Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of External Affairs Government of India. (http://www.indiabusiness.nic.in/economy/agriculture. html),1/5/2010.
Maiorella,B.L., (1985) Ethanol fermentation. In: Comprehensive biotechnol. Young M (ed), Pergamon Press, Oxford, Vol 3, pp. 861-914.
Jenkins, B.M., and Bhatnagar, A.P.,(2003)On electric power potential from paddy straw in Punjab and the optimal size of the power generation station, Bioresour Technol 37 35-41
Wang, J., and Christopher, S.A., (2003) Intercomparison between satellite-derived aerosol optical thickness and PM2.5 mass: Implications for air quality studies, Geophys Res Lett , 2003,30, 2095-2098.
Van Soest, P.J.,(2006) Rice straw, the role of silica and treatments to improve quality, Anim Feed Sci Technol, 130, 137-171.
Trivedi, S., Divecha, J., Shaha, A., (2012) Optimization of inulinase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus tubingensis CR16 using low cost substrates. Carbohydrate Polymers ,90, 483–490
Pandey, A., Radhakrishna, S.,(1993) The Production of glucoamylase by Aspergillus niger NCIM 1245,Process Biochem 28(3), 305-9
Crabb, W.D., Mitchinson, C.,(1997) Enzymes involved in the processing of starch to sugars. Trends Biotechnol,15,349-352
Riaz, A., Ansari, B., Siddiquib,A., Ahmed, S., Naheed, S., Qader, S.A.U., (2015) Immobilization of ?-amylase in operationally stable calcium-alginate beads: A cost effective technique for enzyme aided industrial processes, Inter J Biotechnol Res, 3(5),081-086.
Soleimani, M., Khani, A., Najafzadeh, K., (2012)Alpha amylase immobilization on the silica nanoparticles for cleaning performance towards starch oils in laundry detergents,J Mol Cataysis 74,1-5.
Ashwini K, Gaurav K, Karthik L, Bhaskara RKV (2011). Optimization production and partial purification of extracellular ?-amylase from Bacillus sp. Marini Arch Appl Sci Res 3, 33-42.
Khan, J.,A., Yadav, S.K.,(2011) Production of alpha amylases by Aspergillus niger using cheaper substrates employing solid state fermentation. Inter J Plant Animal Environ Sci.,1 (3),100-108.
Kaur, P.S., Kaur, S., Kaur, H., Sharma, A., Raj, P., Panwar, S., (2015) Solid Substrate Fermentation using Agro Industrial Waste: New Approach for Amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci, 4(12), 712-717.
Miller, G.L., (1959) Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem, 31,426-429.
Sundarram, A., Pandurangappa, T., Murthy, K., (2014) ?-Amylase production and applications: a review. J Appl Environ Microbiol, 2(4), 166-175.
Bhargav, S., Panda, B.P., Ali, M., Javed, S., (2008) Solid-state fermentation An Overview. Chem Biochem Eng,Q 22 (1) 49–70.
Sondhi, S., Sharma, P., George, N., Chauhan, P.S., Puri, N., Gupta, N.,(2015) A novel extracellular thermo-alkali-stable laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4 having potential to biobleach softwood pulp, 3Biotech 5, 175-185.
Ensari, N.Y., Otludil, B., Aytekin, M.C., (1995) Effect of starch induced bacterial growth and amylase pro-duction in Bacillus subtilis. Starch – Starke, 47(8), 315-321.
Usha, K.Y., Praveen, K., Reddy, B.R., (2014) Enhanced Production of ligninolytic enzymes by a mushroom Stereum ostrea, 815495.
Rao, J.L.U.M., Satyanarayana, T., (2013) Enhanced secretion and low temperature stabilization of a hyperthermostable and Ca2+-independent a-amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans by surfactants. Lett Appl Microbiol, 36,191–196.
Ibrahim, D. H., Puspitaloka, R., Rahim, A., Hong, L.S.,(2012) Characterization of solid state fermentation culture conditions for growth and mananase production by Aspergillus niger USM F4 on rice husk in tray system. Br Biotechnol, J 2,133-145.
Hamidi-Esfahani, Z., Shojaosadati, S.A., Rinzema, A., (2004)Modeling of simultaneous effect of moisture and temperature on A. niger growth in solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng, J 21, 265-272.
Revankar, M. S., Desai, K.M., Lele, S.S., (2007) Solid-state fermentation for enhanced production of laccase using indigenously isolated Ganoderma sp. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 143, 16–26.
Unless specified by prior arrangement, the author agrees to the following terms and assurances:
- For myself and on behalf of the other authors listed on this work, I assign to thinkBiotech LLC the copyright* in the contribution for the full term throughout the world.
- I/we further give to the following assurances
- I am the sole author of the contribution, or, if not, I have the written authority of the other authors to transfer the copyright* to thinkBiotech LLC and give these warranties;
- I and (where appropriate) the other authors are entitled to transfer the copyright to thinkBiotech LLC and no one else would be entitled to prevent us from publishing the contribution;
- To the best of my/our knowledge, all the facts in the contribution are true and accurate;
- The content of the contribution is entirely original to me (and where appropriate to the other authors) or, if not, the written permission of the owner of the copyright in any material copied from elsewhere has been obtained for all media (all such permissions to be attached to the contribution as supplementary files);
- Nothing in the contribution is obscene or libellous;
- Nothing in the contribution infringes any duty of confidentiality which I/or the other authors may owe to anyone else.
- I and/or the other authors have obtained the appropriate clearances from my/our employer(s) or other concerned institution(s).